Cohen & Sinowski
Cohen & Sinowski

Navigating the Legal Maze: A Comprehensive Guide to Georgia Personal Injury Trials

  • Published: April 22, 2023

Settlements & Resolving Trucking Accident Cases

Overview of personal injury trials in Georgia

When you or a loved one is involved in an accident that results in personal injury, it can be a confusing and challenging time. In Georgia, personal injury trials are designed to help the injured party seek compensation for the damages they’ve suffered due to another party’s negligence or intentional actions. The process may involve negotiations, settlements, and, if necessary, a trial in front of a judge or jury. While every case is unique, understanding the general steps and procedures involved in a Georgia personal injury trial can help you feel more prepared and confident as you navigate this complex legal process.

Importance of understanding the trial process for personal injury cases

The personal injury trial process can be daunting, particularly for those who are not familiar with the legal system. It’s essential to understand the different stages of the trial process, as it can help you make informed decisions about your case and work more effectively with your attorney. Additionally, knowing what to expect during the trial can alleviate some of the stress and anxiety that often accompanies legal proceedings.

Having a clear understanding of the trial process also allows you to better comprehend the timeline of your case and manage your expectations. This knowledge can empower you to ask the right questions of your attorney and ensure that you are both working together toward a successful resolution. Furthermore, understanding the trial process can help you feel more in control and confident in your pursuit of justice and fair compensation for your injuries.

II. Pre-Trial Preparation

A. Gathering evidence and documents

Before a personal injury trial begins, it’s crucial to gather all the necessary evidence and documents to support your case. This may include medical records, bills, photographs of the accident scene, witness statements, and any other documentation that can help establish the extent of your injuries and the liability of the other party. Organizing and preserving this evidence is essential to building a strong case and presenting it effectively during the trial.

Questions to ask your lawyer

B. Working with your personal injury attorney

Collaborating with a skilled personal injury attorney is an essential part of preparing for your trial. Your attorney will help you understand the legal process, advise you on the best course of action, and represent your interests throughout the trial. It’s crucial to maintain open communication with your attorney and provide them with all the information they need to build a strong case. This includes sharing all relevant facts, even if you think they might hurt your case, as your attorney needs to be prepared to address any potential weaknesses.

C. Filing the lawsuit and serving the defendant

Once you and your attorney have gathered sufficient evidence and assessed the strength of your case, the next step is to file a lawsuit. This involves drafting a complaint that outlines the details of your case, the damages you’re seeking, and the legal basis for your claim. After the complaint is filed with the court, it must be served on the defendant, formally notifying them of the lawsuit and giving them an opportunity to respond.

D. The discovery process

Discovery is an essential phase in the pre-trial preparation, during which both parties exchange information and evidence related to the case. This process can help each side better understand the strengths and weaknesses of their case, facilitate settlement negotiations, and prepare for trial. Discovery methods include:

  1. Interrogatories – Written questions that each party must answer under oath, providing information about their case, witnesses, and evidence.
  2. Requests for production – A formal request for the opposing party to provide specific documents, such as medical records, accident reports, or other relevant materials.
  3. Depositions – A sworn, out-of-court testimony given by witnesses or parties involved in the case, which can later be used as evidence during the trial. Depositions allow both sides to gather information, assess the credibility of witnesses, and prepare for potential lines of questioning during the trial.

Pre-Trial Motions

A. Motion to dismiss

Before proceeding to a trial, attorneys for both sides may file various pre-trial motions to clarify issues, resolve disputes, or even dispose of a case without going to trial. One such motion is the motion to dismiss. A motion to dismiss is a request made by the defendant for the court to dismiss the plaintiff’s case on the grounds that it lacks legal merit. This could be due to a failure to state a claim for which relief can be granted, lack of jurisdiction, or expiration of the statute of limitations. If the judge grants the motion to dismiss, the case is dismissed, and the plaintiff may choose to amend and refile the complaint or appeal the decision to a higher court.

B. Motion for summary judgment

Another common pre-trial motion is the motion for summary judgment. This motion is filed when one party believes that there are no genuine issues of material fact in dispute, and they are entitled to judgment as a matter of law. In other words, the party argues that based on the undisputed facts, they should win the case without the need for a trial. The party filing the motion must provide evidence to support their claim, such as witness affidavits, documents, or other materials. If the judge agrees and grants the motion for summary judgment, the case is resolved in favor of the party that filed the motion, and there is no need for a trial.

C. Other common pre-trial motions

Several other pre-trial motions may be filed during the course of a personal injury case in Georgia. Some of the most common include:

  1. Motion to compel discovery: If one party fails to comply with discovery requests, such as not providing requested documents or answering interrogatories, the other party may file a motion to compel, asking the court to order the non-compliant party to comply with the discovery requests.
  2. Motion in limine: This motion is filed by a party to request that the judge exclude specific evidence or testimony from being presented at trial. This can be due to the evidence being irrelevant, prejudicial, or inadmissible under the rules of evidence.
  3. Motion for a change of venue: A party may request a change of venue if they believe that they cannot receive a fair trial in the current location due to factors such as pre-trial publicity, local bias, or the convenience of witnesses.

These pre-trial motions are part of the legal process aimed at ensuring that a case proceeds fairly and efficiently. They can significantly impact the course of a personal injury case, making it crucial to work with an experienced attorney who understands the intricacies of Georgia’s legal system.

Jury Selection

A. The role of the jury in personal injury trials

In a personal injury trial, the jury plays a crucial role in determining the outcome of the case. Comprised of a group of impartial individuals, the jury is responsible for listening to the evidence presented by both sides, evaluating the credibility of witnesses, and ultimately deciding whether the defendant is liable for the plaintiff’s injuries. If the jury finds the defendant liable, they will also determine the amount of compensation the plaintiff should receive for their damages, such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.

B. The voir dire process

Jury selection begins with a process called voir dire, during which the judge and the attorneys for both parties question potential jurors to determine their suitability for serving in the case. The goal of voir dire is to ensure that the jurors selected are fair, unbiased, and capable of rendering an impartial verdict based on the evidence presented in the trial.

During voir dire, potential jurors may be asked about their backgrounds, beliefs, and experiences to assess whether they have any biases or preconceived notions that might hinder their ability to be fair and impartial. Both the plaintiff’s and defendant’s attorneys have the opportunity to question potential jurors and gather information that could help them make informed decisions about who should serve on the jury.

C. Challenges to potential jurors

Lady justice is blind

After questioning potential jurors during the voir dire process, attorneys have the option to object to certain jurors serving on the case. There are two types of challenges that can be used to exclude potential jurors: peremptory challenges and challenges for cause.

  1. Peremptory challenges: Both the plaintiff’s and defendant’s attorneys are granted a limited number of peremptory challenges, which allow them to exclude potential jurors without providing a specific reason. However, peremptory challenges cannot be used to exclude jurors based on race, gender, or other discriminatory factors.
  2. Challenges for cause: Unlike peremptory challenges, challenges for cause require the attorney to provide a specific reason for excluding the potential juror. These challenges can be used if the attorney believes the potential juror is unable to be impartial, has a close relationship with one of the parties involved, or has a conflict of interest that could affect their ability to serve.

The jury selection process is a critical component of a personal injury trial, as it ultimately shapes the group of individuals who will decide the outcome of the case. By working with an experienced personal injury attorney, plaintiffs can navigate the complexities of jury selection and increase their chances of securing a fair and impartial jury.

Opening Statements

A. Purpose and overview

Following the jury selection process, the personal injury trial officially begins with the opening statements. The purpose of an opening statement is to provide a roadmap of the case, outlining the key facts and legal arguments that each side will present during the trial. While opening statements are not evidence, they serve as an essential opportunity for the attorneys to frame their case and set the tone for the trial, helping the jury understand the context of the dispute and the issues to be decided.

B. What to expect from your attorney

During the opening statement, your attorney will provide an overview of your case, explaining the circumstances that led to your injury, the defendant’s alleged negligence, and the damages you have suffered as a result. Your attorney will also briefly describe the evidence and testimony that will be presented to support your claim, such as medical records, expert opinions, and eyewitness accounts. It’s important to note that your attorney will not go into a detailed argument at this stage; rather, their goal is to give the jury a clear and compelling narrative that sets the stage for the evidence to come.

C. What to expect from the defendant’s attorney

After your attorney has presented their opening statement, the defendant’s attorney will have an opportunity to deliver their own opening statement. During this time, the defendant’s attorney will likely present an alternative version of the events that led to your injury, arguing that their client is not responsible for your damages. They may also attempt to shift blame to another party or suggest that your injuries were pre-existing or not as severe as you claim.

The defendant’s attorney will also outline the evidence they plan to present in an effort to refute your case. This may include expert testimony challenging the cause or extent of your injuries, as well as evidence suggesting that you were partially at fault for the accident.

As a plaintiff in a personal injury trial, it’s crucial to be prepared for the contrasting narratives presented during the opening statements. Understanding the purpose and structure of these statements can help you maintain perspective as the trial unfolds and stay focused on the facts and evidence that support your claim. An experienced personal injury attorney will guide you through this process and develop a persuasive opening statement that effectively sets the stage for a successful trial.

Presentation of Evidence

A. Direct examination

After the opening statements, the trial proceeds to the presentation of evidence. The plaintiff’s attorney will begin by calling witnesses and presenting evidence through direct examination. This process involves the following types of evidence:

  1. Witness testimony: Witnesses play a crucial role in personal injury trials, providing first-hand accounts of the events that led to the injury, as well as the impact of the injury on the plaintiff’s life. During direct examination, your attorney will ask witnesses questions designed to elicit facts that support your case. Witnesses may include bystanders who witnessed the accident, medical professionals who treated your injuries, or friends and family members who can speak to the impact of the injury on your daily life.
  2. Expert witnesses: In many personal injury cases, expert witnesses are called upon to provide specialized knowledge and opinions on various aspects of the case. For example, a medical expert may testify about the extent of your injuries and the treatment required, while an accident reconstructionist may explain how the accident occurred and who was at fault. Expert witnesses help the jury understand complex issues and offer objective opinions that can strengthen your case.
  3. Physical evidence: In addition to witness testimony, your attorney will present physical evidence to support your claim. This may include photographs of the accident scene, your damaged vehicle, or your injuries; medical records documenting your injuries and treatment; or any other relevant documents and materials that can help establish the defendant’s liability and the extent of your damages.

B. Cross-examination

After your attorney has completed their direct examination of a witness, the defendant’s attorney has the opportunity to cross-examine the witness. The purpose of cross-examination is to challenge the credibility of the witness, as well as to clarify or cast doubt on the testimony provided during direct examination. During this process, the defendant’s attorney may ask leading questions that suggest a specific answer, in an attempt to discredit the witness or expose inconsistencies in their testimony.

C. Re-direct and re-cross examination

Following cross-examination, your attorney may conduct a re-direct examination to address any issues raised during cross-examination and to clarify or reinforce the witness’s testimony. The defendant’s attorney then has the opportunity for a re-cross examination, which allows them to further question the witness based on the re-direct examination. These additional rounds of questioning enable both sides to fully explore the testimony of the witness, ensuring that the jury has a complete understanding of the facts and issues at hand.

The presentation of evidence is a critical phase of a personal injury trial, as it provides the foundation upon which the jury will base their decision. By working with an experienced personal injury attorney, you can ensure that your case is supported by strong, compelling evidence that effectively demonstrates the defendant’s liability and the extent of your damages.

Closing Arguments

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A. Summarizing the case

As the personal injury trial nears its conclusion, both sides will present their closing arguments. This is the final opportunity for the attorneys to address the jury directly and persuade them to accept their version of events. The closing arguments begin with the plaintiff’s attorney, who will summarize the case by reviewing the key evidence and testimony presented during the trial. This is an essential part of the closing argument, as it helps to reinforce the key points of the plaintiff’s case and remind the jury of the compelling evidence supporting the plaintiff’s claim.

B. Persuading the jury

Beyond summarizing the case, the primary purpose of the closing argument is to persuade the jury to find in favor of the plaintiff. The plaintiff’s attorney will use various rhetorical techniques and strategies to achieve this goal, such as highlighting the emotional aspects of the case, emphasizing the strength of the evidence, and appealing to the jury’s sense of justice and fairness. By crafting a compelling narrative and addressing any potential doubts or concerns raised by the defendant’s case, the plaintiff’s attorney aims to convince the jury that the defendant is liable for the plaintiff’s injuries and should be held accountable for the damages caused.

C. Anticipating the defendant’s arguments

Following the plaintiff’s closing argument, the defendant’s attorney will present their own closing argument. To effectively counter the defendant’s points, the plaintiff’s attorney must anticipate the arguments that the defendant is likely to raise and address them proactively in their own closing statement. This may involve preemptively addressing any weaknesses in the plaintiff’s case, refuting the defendant’s attempts to shift blame or minimize the extent of the plaintiff’s injuries, and reinforcing the key elements of the plaintiff’s case that support a finding of liability.

It’s important to note that the plaintiff’s attorney will have a final opportunity to address the jury in a rebuttal after the defendant’s closing argument. This allows the plaintiff’s attorney to respond directly to any new arguments or issues raised by the defendant and to further underscore the strength of the plaintiff’s case.

Closing arguments are a crucial element of a personal injury trial, as they provide the final opportunity for the attorneys to shape the jury’s perception of the case and persuade them to find in favor of their client. By working with an experienced personal injury attorney, you can ensure that your case is presented effectively and convincingly during this critical stage of the trial.

Jury Deliberation and Verdict

A. The role of the jury in reaching a verdict

Once the closing arguments have concluded, the jury will begin the deliberation process to determine the outcome of the personal injury trial. The jury’s role is to impartially evaluate the evidence and testimony presented during the trial and reach a verdict based on the facts and the applicable law. The jury will consider the arguments made by both sides, review the evidence, and discuss the case amongst themselves. In most personal injury cases, the jury is asked to determine two key issues: whether the defendant is liable for the plaintiff’s injuries and, if so, the appropriate amount of compensation (or “damages”) to award the plaintiff.

B. The various potential outcomes

There are several potential outcomes in a personal injury trial, depending on the jury’s assessment of the evidence and the legal issues involved. These outcomes generally fall into three categories:

  1. A verdict in favor of the plaintiff: If the jury finds that the defendant is liable for the plaintiff’s injuries, they will determine the amount of compensation to be awarded. This may include compensation for medical expenses, lost wages, pain and suffering, and other damages related to the injury.
  2. A verdict in favor of the defendant: If the jury finds that the defendant is not liable for the plaintiff’s injuries, the plaintiff will not be awarded any compensation, and the case will be dismissed.
  3. A hung jury: In some cases, the jury may be unable to reach a unanimous decision, resulting in a “hung jury.” If this occurs, the judge may declare a mistrial, and the case may be retried with a new jury or settled out of court.

C. The role of the judge in finalizing the verdict

Once the jury has reached a verdict, they will inform the judge, who will then announce the decision in court. The judge plays a critical role in finalizing the verdict by ensuring that the jury’s decision is consistent with the law and the evidence presented during the trial. If the judge finds that the jury’s verdict is not supported by the evidence or is contrary to the law, the judge may order a new trial or adjust the damages awarded.

In some cases, the judge may also be asked to review the jury’s award of damages if either party believes the amount is excessive or insufficient. The judge has the authority to adjust the amount of damages if they find that the award is not supported by the evidence or is otherwise unjust.

The jury deliberation and verdict process is the culmination of the personal injury trial, reflecting the careful evaluation of the evidence and the application of the law by the jury. By working with an experienced personal injury attorney, you can ensure that your case is presented effectively and convincingly, increasing the likelihood of a favorable verdict and just compensation for your injuries.

Post-Trial Motions and Appeals

After the jury has delivered its verdict, there may still be opportunities for either party to challenge the outcome through post-trial motions and appeals. These procedures can be complex and require a deep understanding of the legal system. This section will discuss the various post-trial motions and the appeals process.

A. Motion for a new trial

If either party believes that there were errors in the trial that affected the outcome, they may file a motion for a new trial. This motion must generally be filed within a specific time frame after the verdict is announced. Some grounds for requesting a new trial may include juror misconduct, newly discovered evidence, or errors in the judge’s rulings on matters of law. It is important to note that the granting of a new trial is at the discretion of the trial judge, and the burden of proof falls on the party requesting the new trial.

B. Motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict (JNOV)

Another post-trial motion that may be filed is the motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict, also known as JNOV. This motion is used when a party believes that the jury’s verdict was not supported by the evidence presented during the trial. In this motion, the party asks the judge to overturn the jury’s verdict and enter a judgment in their favor. Like the motion for a new trial, a JNOV motion must be filed within a specific time frame after the verdict is announced. The success of a JNOV motion depends on the ability to demonstrate that the jury’s verdict was unreasonable based on the evidence and the applicable law.

C. The appeals process

If the trial court denies the post-trial motions or if a party believes that there were significant errors in the trial proceedings, they may choose to appeal the case to a higher court. The appeals process involves a review of the trial court’s proceedings and decisions by appellate judges, who will determine whether legal errors were made that affected the outcome of the trial.

During the appeals process, the parties generally do not present new evidence or testimony but instead focus on legal arguments based on the trial court’s record. The appellate court may either affirm the trial court’s judgment, reverse the judgment, or remand the case back to the trial court for further proceedings.

It is crucial to understand that the appeals process can be lengthy and complex, and the chances of success depend on the specific circumstances of the case. Working with an experienced personal injury attorney throughout the trial and post-trial proceedings can increase the likelihood of a favorable outcome and ensure that your rights are protected.

In conclusion, post-trial motions and appeals provide opportunities for both parties to challenge the outcome of a personal injury trial. By understanding these procedures and working with a knowledgeable attorney, you can navigate the complexities of the legal system and pursue the justice and compensation you deserve.


A. Recap of what to expect during a personal injury trial in Georgia

Navigating the complex world of personal injury trials can be a daunting experience, especially for those unfamiliar with the legal process. Throughout this blog, we have discussed the key stages of a personal injury trial in Georgia, from the initial filing of the complaint to the final outcome of the trial. We have also explored the importance of jury selection, the presentation of evidence and witness testimony, and the various post-trial motions and appeals that may follow the verdict.

B. The importance of working with an experienced attorney

As we have emphasized throughout this post, working with an experienced personal injury attorney is crucial for ensuring that your case is presented effectively and convincingly. A skilled attorney will guide you through the entire process, advocate on your behalf, and help you understand your rights and options at every stage of the trial. By partnering with a knowledgeable legal team, you can increase the likelihood of securing the compensation you deserve for your injuries.

C. Encouragement to seek legal help if you have been injured in Georgia

If you or a loved one has been injured due to someone else’s negligence in Georgia, it is essential to seek legal help as soon as possible. At Cohen & Sinowski, our experienced attorneys, Scott S. Cohen and Thomas C. Sinowski II, are dedicated to providing personalized and compassionate representation for our clients in the realm of personal injury law.

We invite you to contact us for a free consultation to discuss your case and explore your legal options. With our no fee unless we win policy, you can be confident that our team will work tirelessly to secure the best possible outcome for you. To schedule your free consultation, call us at 404-351-8888, email Thomas at, or visit our website at You can also reach out to us through our contact form at Contact Us. Remember, #localmatters, and Cohen & Sinowski is here to help you every step of the way.

Cohen & Sinowski

The personal injury attorneys of Cohen & Sinowski are
dedicated to helping clients in the Metro Atlanta area.
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